Welcome to our new home. Grab Your Freebies Today!

Necessary Bilingual SLP Blurbs for Report Writing

por Liliana Diaz noviembre 09, 2020 1 Comentario

Necessary Bilingual SLP Blurbs for Report Writing

Let's face it, report writing can get a little repetitive, especially when utilizing the same assessments over and over again. A strategy that has been super helpful for me, and that has saved me lots of time, is to save all of my report writing blurbs. Over the years, I have collected and saved blurbs that I have written which I can easily copy and paste into a report and edit/revise as needed. These blurbs include bilingual assessment templates, language sample templates and blurbs that explain difference versus disorder. I am sharing with you some useful templates that bilingual SLPs often request from me. Please note that these templates are written in MY OWN words, with the exception of the "Proceed with caution blurbs for the PLS-5 and CELF-4 (these blurbs were obtained from the leadersproject.org website and the link has been provided below). Therefore, you should edit the blurb in your own words in order to fit your writing style and to accurately represent your student's needs. Simply copy and paste the blurbs below. 

 

Bilingual English-Spanish Assessment (BESA)  

ITALK Survey

The ITALK survey was utilized to interview the child’s parents and gather input from the family about the child’s speech and language performance in Spanish and English at home. This information is used to guide a decision making regarding which language to use for the assessment. The clinician asked questions about the child’s vocabulary, articulation, grammar and comprehension in each language (English & Spanish). Individual scores were obtained for each domain depending on the parent’s response. The scores for the five areas were summed and then divided by the number of scored responses. A higher score for a language indicates that it is likely the child’s better language at home. If the highest average is equal to or greater than 4.18 then this indicates that there are no parent concerns about the child’s language development. If the highest average score is lower than 4.18 than further speech-language assessment is indicated. The student obtained the highest average score in ______, which was ______, indicating that there are (no) parent concerns and ______ is the preferred language at home.  

 

BESA Phonology Subtest

The Bilingual English-Spanish Assessment (BESA) was administered to assess the student’s phonological skills. The assessment includes two measures (English & Spanish) in order to gather an understanding of the student’s articulation skills of each language. The student is required to spontaneously label the picture presented.

BESA Language

The Bilingual English-Spanish Assessment (BESA) is a comprehensive speech and language assessment developed for Spanish-English bilingual children ages 4 through 6 years. The BESA consists of a pragmatic language activity and three subtests (Phonology, Morphosyntax, & Semantics) in two languages. The Pragmatic activity allows for the identification of children who may encounter difficulties in situations that require the child to be an active participant. The Phonology Subtest is a single-word phonological assessment which includes two measures (English & Spanish) and assesses the student’s articulation skills of each language. The Morphosyntax subtest assesses cloze and sentence repetition tasks to target grammatical morphemes and sentence structures that were predicted to be difficult for children with language impairment in English or Spanish. The Semantics subtest targets six tasks: analogies, characteristic properties, categorization, functions, linguistic concepts, and similarities and differences which allows the clinician to gain an understanding of the student’s lexical system. The BESA was normed on Latino children in the United States who were exposed to Spanish, English or both languages.  Bilingual speakers are assessed using separate language administration and scoring procedures. The normal range is 1.5 standard deviations (SD) below or above the mean. A standard score within the normal range (85-115) places a child within normal limits (WNL) for the child's age. 

Articulation Difference versus Disorder

Blurb when Assessing Articulation

It should be noted that most phonological processes are shared across Spanish and English with the exception of tap/trill deviation which is only seen in Spanish languages and vocalization which can only be seen in English. Differences among phonological processes only occur at the ages in which they are suppressed. In addition, all phonemes are shared among the Spanish and English language with the exception of the following English phonemes: v, h, sh, j, ð, z, r, voiceless th, ng, z. It should be noted that any articulation errors on ________ may be attributed to the influence of the child’s first language and is considered a difference not a disorder. A true articulation disorder occurs when misarticulations on specific phonemes are shared across languages. The student presented with the following articulation errors which are considered true errors : ___________________

Preschool Language Scales- Fifth Edition English & Spanish 

PLS-5

The Preschool Language Scales-Fifth Edition (PLS-5) is developed for children from birth through 7 years 11 months of age and is composed of two standardized scales (Auditory Comprehension and Expressive Communication). The Auditory Comprehension (AC) scale is used to evaluate the scope of a child's comprehension of language ranging from precursors for language, vocabulary, concepts, morphology, syntax, complex sentences, comparisons, inferences, and emerging literacy. The Expressive Communication (EC) scale is used to determine how well a child communicates with others including vocal development, social communication, object labels, descriptive labels, quantities, prepositions, grammatical markers, syntax, emerging literacy and integrative language skills. The normal range is 1.5 standard deviations (SD) below or above the mean. A standard score within the normal range (85-115) places a child within normal limits (WNL) for the child's age. 

Proceed Scores with Caution | PLS-5

Source: Test Review: PLS-5 Spanish Leadersproject.org 

It should be noted that despite the PLS-5's attempt to design a comprehensive language battery, results obtained from administration are not valid due to lack of information as to how tasks and items were deemed appropriate, and an insufficient reference standard. It is also important to note that although the discriminant accuracy was considered “fair,” the PLS-5 Spanish does not discriminate typically developing children from children with a language disorder. Instead, it discriminates children who scored below an arbitrary cutoff score on the PLS-4 Spanish. According to the Manual de Administración y Puntación, “For an overall evaluation of a child’s language ability, the results of the PLS-5 should be supplemented with a COMPLETE family and academic history, primary caregiver interview, analysis of spontaneous language sample, classroom behavioral observations, observations of peer interactions, evaluations of pragmatic and interpersonal communication abilities, and the results of other linguistic and metalinguistic abilities tests” (p. 7).  Due to cultural and linguistic biases (e.g. exposure to books, cultural labeling practices, communication with strangers, responses to known questions, etc.), and assumptions about past knowledge and experiences, this test should only be used to probe for information and not to identify a disorder or disability. Therefore, SCORES should not be calculated and used as the SOLE determinant of classification or referral for special education services.

Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Spanish Fourth Edition

CELF-4 Spanish

The Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Spanish Fourth Edition (CELF-4) was administered to assess the student's receptive and expressive language skills in Spanish.The test consists of 9 subtests which include: Conceptos y Siguiendo Direcciones, Estructura de Palabras, Recordando Oraciones, Formulacion de Oraciones, Classes de Palabras, Estructura de Oraciones, Vocabulario Expresivo, Repeticion de numeros and Secuencias Familiares.

In the Conceptos y Siguiendo Direcciones subtest, the objective is to evaluate the student's ability to interpret spoken directions of increasing length and complexity which contain concepts that require logical operations such as remembering the names, characteristics, and order of the mentioned objects and to identify from among several pictured choices that were mentioned.

In the Estructura de Palabras subtest, the objective is to evaluate the student's ability to apply word structure rules or morphology to mark inflections, derivations, and comparison and to select and use appropriate pronouns to refer to people, objects and possessive relationships.

In the Recordando Oraciones subtest, the objective is to evaluate the student's ability to listen to spoken sentences of increasing length and ccomplexity and repeat the sentences without changing word meanings, inflections, derivations, comparisons or sentence structure.

In the Formulacion de Oraciones subtest, the objective is to evaluate the student's ability to formulate complete, semantically and grammatically correct spoken sentences of increasing length and complexity using given words and contextual constraints imposed by illustrations.

In the Clases de Palabras subtest, the objective is to evaluatte he student's ability to understand relationships between words that are related by semantic class features and to express those relationships.

In the Vocabulario Expresivo subtest, the objective is to evaluate the student's ability to name illustrations of people, objects, and actions.

In the Entendiendo Parrafos subtest, the objective is to evaluate the student's ability to sustain attention and focus while listening to spoken paragraphs of increasing length and complexity and to understand oral narrative and text and be able to answer/think critically about the questions and the content of the information given.

Proceed Scores with Caution | CELF-4

Source: Test Review: CELF-4 Leadersproject.org 

The CELF-4 Spanish was designed to assess the presence of a language disorder or delay in Spanish speaking students aged 5;0-21;11. Despite the CELF-4 Spanish’s attempt to design a comprehensive language battery, results obtained from administration are not valid due to lack of information as to how tasks and items were deemed appropriate, and an insufficient reference standard. The insufficient reference standard in turn affects the diagnostic accuracy of the CELF-4 Spanish, including the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios, rendering these measures invalid. Therefore, even if the CELF-4 Spanish were a valid, reliable and unbiased assessment, it lacks sufficient discriminant accuracy in order to determine the presence or absence of a language disorder.

Items from the CELF-4 Spanish rely heavily on vocabulary dependent and labeling tasks. As a result, this test will likely identify socioeconomic status and second language acquisition issues, not a disorder or disability, in children learning English as a second language and those from homes of lower socioeconomic status. According to the Examiner’s Manual, test administrators should be aware of a number of factors that may affect the performance of a student from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Some clinicians may choose to use items from the CELF-4 Spanish as probes to determine receptive and expressive language skills. In this case, modifications to the standard test administration may be used. According to the Examiner’s Manual, “for an overall evaluation of a student’s language ability, the results of the CELF-4 Spanish should be supplemented with a complete family and academic history, parent interview, results of other and informal measures, an analysis of a spontaneous language sample, the results of other linguistic and metalinguistic abilities tests, classroom behavioral observations, observations with peers, and evaluations of pragmatic and interpersonal communication abilities” (p. 18).

Due to cultural and linguistic biases (for example, exposure to books, repetition of unfamiliar syntactic structures, cultural labeling practices, communication with strangers, responses to known questions, etc.) and assumptions about past knowledge and experiences, this test should only be used to probe for information and not to identify a disorder or disability. Therefore, scores should not be calculated and used as the determinant of classification or referral to special education services.

Language History: Usage & Exposure

The student's exposure and usage of _____ and ____ was measured by determining who the child lives with, their relationship to the child, the languages spoken and how much time is spent with the child in a typical day. On a typical day, ________ is exposed to (hears) _______ 0% of the time and is exposed to ______ 0% of the time through interactions with his/her immediate family members and teachers in school. In a typical day, the student communicates (speaks) in ______ 0% of the time and in ______ 0% of the time.

 

BICS versus CALP 

Students acquiring a second language must acquire Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP). BICS relates to context embedded social language, which is acquired within 2 years. CALP is the context reduced language of academics, which is acquired in about 7 years, but can take up to 10 years to acquire. CALP requires students to use active cognitive strategies to perform a task. A BICS/CALP gap can lead educators to believe a student has a language disorder or learning disability, especially as the educational environment becomes less contextualized in older grades. The academic language used in CALP is also less available in the home, in which social language is more commonly used. ________ has not yet achieved CALP but has the foundational language skills in ______ to successfully develop CALP within the expected time range. 

Language Sample with SALT Narrative Scoring Scheme

The wordless picture book “Frog, Where are you?” by Mercer Mayer was used to elicit a language sample in English and Spanish. Each language sample was analyzed using the Narrative Scoring Scheme (NSS) which is an assessment tool that provides an index of the student’s ability to produce a structurally sound and coherent narrative.  NSS consists of a scale from 1­5 for each area including introduction, character development, mental states, referencing, conflict resolution, cohesion, and conclusion. An average was taken to determine the student’s level where 0­-1 is minimal, 2­-3 is emerging, and 4­-5 is proficient.

 Nonword Repetition Task

A Nonword Repetition Task (NWRT) was administered in order to assess the student’s phonological working memory, speech perception, phonological assembly, and short-term memory. NWRTs provide an understanding of the student’s phonological awareness, word learning skills, and overall language acquisition. It is a useful tool that is less culturally and linguistically biased when compared to standardized language assessments and helps identify students with a developmental language disorder. During the NWRT, the clinician asked the student to repeat a series of nonwords of differing syllable length and complexity of sound combinations, thereby assessing linguistic abilities that have not been taught or learned previously. The number of correct consonants was analyzed, and the student obtained __________ which indicates that ___________.

 

Please share in the comments any other blurbs that you frequently use or think would be useful to have. I would love to read them and incorporate them in my report writing as well! :)

 



Liliana Diaz
Liliana Diaz

Autor


1 Respuesta

Maria Isabel Hernandez
Maria Isabel Hernandez

noviembre 16, 2020

Awesome, grasias

Dejar un comentario

Los comentarios se aprobarán antes de mostrarse.


Ver artículo completo

The Bilingual Continuum During Times of COVID-19
The Bilingual Continuum During Times of COVID-19

por Liliana Diaz septiembre 01, 2020

As the new school year starts, I cannot help but think about my bilingual students and how their language proficiency might have shifted over the summer vacation. You may be wondering, what do you mean shifted? Well, before I can explain how my students’ language proficiency might have shifted, we need to talk about the complexity of bilingualism and the bilingual continuum. 

Ver artículo completo

Diverse Books to Use in Speech Therapy
Diverse Books to Use in Speech Therapy

por Liliana Diaz agosto 24, 2020 1 Comentario

As speech therapists, we are often easily influenced by the popular speech therapy books that are often talked on social media or blogs. I am guilty of using popular books like “There was an old lady who swallowed a fly, if you give a mouse a cookie, etc. Don't get me wrong, these are great books that allow SLPs to target a variety of goals. However, you can also target a variety of goals with the following diverse and multi-cultural books as well. Here are my top picks for books to use in therapy as well as language goal areas that you can target with the books.  

Ver artículo completo

Word on the street is that Osmo is the latest must-have gadget for every SLP and teacher participating remote/distance learning. So, what’s all the hype about? Is the Osmo Little Genius Kit worth the bucks? Well, here is my honest review about the Osmo as
Osmo Review & How to Setup Your Osmo via Airplay on Zoom & Google Meet for Remote Learning

por Liliana Diaz agosto 18, 2020 3 Comentarios

Word on the street is that Osmo is the latest must-have gadget for every SLP and teacher participating remote/distance learning. So, what’s all the hype about? Is the Osmo Little Genius Kit worth the bucks? Well, here is my honest review about the Osmo as well as a “How-to” setup guide for air playing the Osmo on the Zoom and Google Meet Platform.

Ver artículo completo

Español es